My aim, documented in this post, has been to find an open educational resource to support the activity defined in “Mines’ a mocha“. Inspired by the ocTEL week 3 webinar, I searched in PhET but this was not helpful.
A simple look in OpenLearn threw up an “Introduction to computational thinking” which is exactly the right sounding topic.
A look in iTunesU proved much more complex, from having to log in (I think!) to interpreting search results. There appeared to be something relevant from MIT’s Open Courseware programme – more on this below.
Finally, a quick (Google) search of YouTube throws up a bunch of video on computational thinking. Key issue is which to try based on simple info of duration, author/uploader, and description. Some results also include an indication of channel subscribers and number of comments as an indication of popularity but I did not find this generally helpful.
Open Learn Resource Review
Interestingly the OpenLearn resource is “an adapted extract from the Open University course M269 Algorithms, data structures and computability” and in turn i“Much of the material in this unit is organised around video clips from a presentation that (Jeannette M. Wing, Professor of Computer Science at Carnegie Mellon University and Head of Microsoft Research International) gave in 2009 entitled ‘Computational Thinking and Thinking About Computing’”
There is an indication of the aim (and implied audience) from the original OER given “the presentation builds on Wing’s influential 2006 ‘Computational Thinking’ paper in which she set out to ‘spread the joy, awe, and power of computer science, aiming to make computational thinking commonplace’ (Wing, 2006, p. 35)”
This is clearly an example of one OER building on another OER in the spirit of the Creative Commons “CC BY” licence which “lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work“.
Ability to Reuse
Checked out the OpenLearn FAQ with questions on
- “What kind of computer do I need to use OpenLearn?” => web based so open to all, but optimised for particular, not bleeding edge browsers
- “What can I do with OpenLearn materials?” => this is licensed under Creative Commons licence ‘Attribution-Non-Commercial-Share-Alike’ .
All this seems to support reuse within our HE programs provided we are not charging for straight access to resource, but instead charge for a learning experience – as per this week’s webinar discussion.
What to Reuse
Learning outcomes for the OpenLearn resource seem to match what we are trying to develop, though level may be higher!
The resource has a nice definition of an algorithm – would we want to highlight this or reuse it in our own resource? Given the structure of the web content, would be hard to do the former – unless we could use annotation tool such as Diigo – or ScoopIt?
Discussion of real world-mathematical model relationship is too detailed/ off topic but has nice drawing to match things up – a graphical MCQ/objective test question
… but leads on to discussion of abstraction – for which there is an entry in the glossary, but which is perhaps too technical for KS3!
Would need to watch video to decide if that was good resource to reuse.
How to Reuse
On first inspection, parts of this resource would be better to be reused as background material. Main criteria for selection would be appropriateness to learners and learning outcomes.
iTunes / MIT Open Courseware Review
The licencing is clear and up front – CC BY-NC-SA but version 3 compared to OU version 4
The intended audience and aims are clear given the course is “… aimed at students with little or no programming experience. It aims to provide students with an understanding of the role computation can play in solving problems” which could be taken to be same as the OpenLearn rsource.
However, OCW “also aims to help students, regardless of their major, to feel justifiably confident of their ability to write small programs that allow them to accomplish useful goals. The class will use the Python™ programming language.” This suggests a much more technical course.
And wow – the course is a blast from the past, despite being recorded in 2011. Chalk and talk with very few notes being written on board. And starting point is the programming language and tools. It is only 30+minutes in that the first concept of sequences or “straight line” programmes are introduced. A reference back to “last time” to recipes suggests that this is wrong lecture to start with!
Went back to first lecture where first notes are “declarative & imperative”! We get to “algorithm” 15 mins in, defined in terms of “how to perform a computation”, with additional concepts of “convergence” or halting. The reference to recipes in lecture 2 is clearly to the metaphorical rather than edible type!
I know people who have sat through exactly these types of introductory” lecture – that put people with no programming experience off programming altogether. Questions of what and how to reuse are “nothing” and “don’t”.
Just as importantly as the content itself, while iTunesU gives you links to access the content, e.g. https://itunes.apple.com/gb/podcast/lecture-2-core-elements-program/id499270153?i=110101057&mt=2, iTunes is still required to play it. This may act as a barrier to people who do not have iTunes (and an appleID?). Mashing up the content then becomes more difficult.
First video on computational thinking is way to general – and takes 3 plus minutes out of 3 and half to get to a definition of computational thinking as “critical thinking + the power of computing”. Not memorable (I had to go back and check!) or particularly useful.
Second search on YouTube (adding terms for the basic concepts of sequence, selection and iteration) pulled up more promising videos, but information on them is patchy, granularity is small, and for the context, you need to start to watch them.
One of the results my search for the basic concepts actually throws up is a short video from Durham College (who/where?) that places the concepts I am looking for in the context of:
- a C# programming course, where …
- students have read 4 chapters of a book, and
- attended one lab session
- and are now ready for an overview of control structures
I am not sure this is my intended audience.
What to Reuse
The video introduces notions we are after with clear, if mathematical, examples. Looking to see how to reference a particular point in a You tube video we can see:
- Sequence at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z-bjjdV9WwA#t=1m50s
- Selection at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z-bjjdV9WwA#t=3m1s
- Iteration at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z-bjjdV9WwA#t=4m8s
How to Reuse
There is no clear indication of licensing for this video as the share tab is just a way to generate the URL or web address to use.
However, the material is of reasonable quality that might make interesting background for more mathematically minded students.
The ability to reference a particular part of the video direct in a browser is a distinct advantage over iTunesU where content access and/or download requires iTunes
The use of more instructional design or structured descriptions for the resources makes it easier to assess if they are going to be appropriate at the start. This then favours a more structured source than an open search.
Conversely, the ability to mash up, remix or build upon content is easier using openly accessible content that can be references by web address or URL, as opposed to resources which are accessed in closed systems or are not designed for remashing.
As for the difference in type of resources, e.g. text vs video vs interactive elements vs quiz etc, this is something to be discussed elsewhere.